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Summary of the key knowledge points of physiology in Henan University

Published on: November 29, 2021 by: new starting point (thick learning) Click:

Chapter VI digestion and absorption

Physiological characteristics of gastrointestinal smooth muscle: A, excitability, conduction, contraction, B, automatic rhythm, C tension

D stretch is large, e is not sensitive to electrical stimulation, but sensitive to temperature, chemistry and stretch

Slow wave: on the basis of resting potential, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells can produce spontaneous depolarization and repolarization of rhythmic potential fluctuations, the frequency is slow, because slow waves determine the contraction rhythm of smooth muscle, also known as the basic electrical rhythm

Nerves innervating digestive tract: a internal nervous system, composed of myenteric plexus and submucosal plexus

B the external nervous system, including the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, is dominated by the parasympathetic nerves

The digestive function of stomach includes chemical digestion of gastric juice and mechanical digestion of gastric motility

Gastric juice: it is a colorless acidic liquid, pH is 0.9 ~ 1.5, the main components include hydrochloric acid, HCO3 -, Na +, K + and other inorganic substances, and pepsinogen, mucin, internal factors and other organic substances

Hydrochloric acid: also known as gastric acid, is secreted by parietal cells in acid secreting glands

Main functions: a activates pepsinogen and provides acid environment for pepsin

B kills bacteria that enter the stomach

C hydrochloric acid into the small intestine can promote the secretion of pancreatic juice, bile and intestinal fluid

D is beneficial to the absorption of iron and calcium in small intestine

Mucus bicarbonate barrier: an anti injury barrier composed of mucus and HCO3 -

The forms of gastric motility: receptive relaxation, peristalsis and tonic contraction

Gastric emptying: the process in which chyme is discharged from the stomach into the duodenum. The motive force is the contraction of the stomach (the pressure difference between the two sides of the pylorus), and the resistance is the contraction of the pylorus and duodenum

Pancreatic juice: colorless, odorless, isotonic alkaline liquid, pH 7.8 ~ 8.4 The components include inorganic substances such as water, HCO3 - and various ions, and organic substances such as amylase, lipase, trypsin, ribonuclease, etc

6. Bile sweat does not contain digestive enzymes, but has bile salts. Its main function is to promote the digestion and absorption of fat

The movement pattern of small intestine: tense contraction, segmented movement and peristalsis

The function of segmented exercise: a makes digestive juice and chyme fully mixed, which is helpful to the chemical digestion of food

B makes food and intestinal wall close contact, promote the absorption of digestive decomposition products. C because of extrusion of intestinal wall, can promote the return of blood and lymph

Physiological functions of large intestine: a absorbs water and electrolyte in intestinal contents and participates in the regulation of water and electrolyte balance by the body

B. food residue is processed to form faeces and stored temporarily

C absorbs vitamin B complex and vitamin K synthesized by some bacteria in the large intestine

Why is the small intestine the main digestive organ?

Oral cavity, esophagus - no absorption; Large intestine - water, salt stomach - alcohol, a small amount of water.

The main site is the small intestine, because:

1. The small intestine has a huge absorption area.

2. Food stays in the small intestine for a long time. About 3-8 hours.

3. Food has been digested into small molecules suitable for absorption in the small intestine.

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